Terrestrial Behavior in Titi Monkeys (Callicebus, Cheracebus, and Plecturocebus): Potential Correlates, Patterns, and Differences between Genera

João Pedro Souza-Alves, Italo Mourthe, Renato R. Hilário, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Jennifer Rehg, Carla C. Gestich, Adriana C. Acero-Murcia, Patrice Adret, Rolando Aquino, Mélissa Berthet, Mark Bowler, Armando M. Calouro, Gustavo R. Canale, Nayara de A. Cardoso, Christini B. Caselli, Cristiane Cäsar, Renata R.D. Chagas, Aryanne Clyvia, Cintia F. Corsini, Thomas DeflerAnneke DeLuycker, Anthony Di Fiore, Kimberly Dingess, Gideon Erkenswick, Michele Alves Ferreira, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Stephen F. Ferrari, Isadora P. Fontes, Josimar Daniel Gomes, Frederico P.R. Gonçalves, Maurício Guerra, Torbjørn Haugaasen, Stefanie Heiduck, Eckhard W. Heymann, Shannon Hodges, Rosario Huashuayo-Llamocca, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Carlos Benhur Kasper, Jenna Lawrence, Teresa Magdalena Lueffe, Karine G.D. Lopes, Jesús Martínez, Fabiano R. de Melo, Mariluce Rezende Messias, Mariana B. Nagy-Reis, Inés Nole, Filipa Paciência, Erwin Palacios, Alice Poirier, Grasiela Porfírio, Amy Porter, Eluned Price, Rodrigo C. Printes, Erika P. Quintino, Evandro Amato Reis, Alessandro Rocha, Adriana Rodríguez, Fábio Röhe, Damian Rumiz, Sam Shanee, Marina M. Santana, Eleonore Z.F. Setz, Francisco Salatiel C. de Souza, Wilson Spironello, Emérita R. Tirado Herrera, Luana Vinhas, Kevina Vulinec, Robert B. Wallace, Mrinalini Watsa, Patricia C. Wright, Robert J. Young, Adrian A. Barnett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. For arboreal primates, ground use may increase dispersal opportunities, tolerance to habitat change, access to ground-based resources, and resilience to human disturbances, and so has conservation implications. We collated published and unpublished data from 86 studies across 65 localities to assess titi monkey (Callicebinae) terrestriality. We examined whether the frequency of terrestrial activity correlated with study duration (a proxy for sampling effort), rainfall level (a proxy for food availability seasonality), and forest height (a proxy for vertical niche dimension). Terrestrial activity was recorded frequently for Callicebus and Plecturocebus spp., but rarely for Cheracebus spp. Terrestrial resting, anti-predator behavior, geophagy, and playing frequencies in Callicebus and Plecturocebus spp., but feeding and moving differed. Callicebus spp. often ate or searched for new leaves terrestrially. Plecturocebus spp. descended primarily to ingest terrestrial invertebrates and soil. Study duration correlated positively and rainfall level negatively with terrestrial activity. Though differences in sampling effort and methods limited comparisons and interpretation, overall, titi monkeys commonly engaged in a variety of terrestrial activities. Terrestrial behavior in Callicebus and Plecturocebus capacities may bolster resistance to habitat fragmentation. However, it is uncertain if the low frequency of terrestriality recorded for Cheracebus spp. is a genus-specific trait associated with a more basal phylogenetic position, or because studies of this genus occurred in pristine habitats. Observations of terrestrial behavior increased with increasing sampling effort and decreasing food availability. Overall, we found a high frequency of terrestrial behavior in titi monkeys, unlike that observed in other pitheciids.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)553-572
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Primatology
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019


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