Objective. To determine the occurrence of inadequate antimicrobial therapy among critically ill patients with bacteremia and the factors associated with it, to identify the microorganisms that received inadequate antimicrobial treatment, and to determine the relationship between inadequate treatment and patients outcome. Methods. From June 1995 to January 1999 we collected data on all clinically significant ICU-bacteremias in our teaching hospital. Clinical and microbiological characteristics were recorded and the adequacy of empirical antimicrobial treatment in each case was determined. We defined inappropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment as applying to infection that was not being effectively treated at the time the causative microorganism and its antibiotic susceptibility were known. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the variables associated with inappropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment and to evaluate the influence of this on the related mortality to bacteremia, using the SPSS package (9.0). Results. Among 166 intensive care unit patients with bacteremia, 39 (23.5%) received inadequate antimicrobial treatment. In this last group the mean age of patients was 64.1 ± 13.2 years, and 64% were men. Bacteremia was hospital-acquired in 92% of these cases. Eleven percent developed septic shock and 37.7% severe sepsis, and ultimately fatal underlying disease was present in 28.2% of patients given inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment. The main sources of bacteremias in this group were: a vascular catheter (15.3%), respiratory (7.6%) or unknown (53.8%). The microorganisms most frequently isolated in the group with inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment were: coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (27.3%), Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Candida species (4.5% each). The frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the cases with inappropriate treatment was higher than in the group with appropriate treatment (OR 2.62; 95% CI: 1.10-6.21; P = 0.015). The global mortality rate was 56% and the related mortality was 30% in the group with inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment. The only factor associated with inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment was the absence of abdominal or respiratory focus (P = 0.04; OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.12-0.97). Septic shock was related to attributable mortality (P = 0.03; OR 3.19; 95% CI: 1.08-9.40), but not inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (P = 0.24; OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 0.66-4.78). Conclusion. Almost a quarter of critically ill patients with bloodstream infections were given inadequate empirical antibiotic treatment, but mortality was not higher in the group with inadequate treatment than in the group with adequate treatment. This fact was probably due to microbiological factors and clinical features, such as the type of microorganism most frequently isolated and the source of the bacteremia.
Zaragoza, R., Artero, A., Camarena, J. J., Sancho, S., González, R., & Nogueira, J. M. (2003). The influence of inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment on patients with bloodstream infections in an intensive care unit. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 412-418. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-0691.2003.00656.x