The pharmacological basis of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant as an antiemetic agent in pigeons

Naveed Muhammad, Sana Ullah, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Abdur Rauf, Omer Shehzad, Muhammad Atif, Haroon Khan, Humira Naz, Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Anees Ahmed Khalil, Md Sahab Uddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Cuscuta reflexa has been traditionally used as an antiemetic. Additionally, it has been used in various herbal formulations for the treatment of emesis. So far, there is no scientific evidence of the plant extract as antiemetic. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the antiemetic activity of Juice (JCR), aqueous (CRAE) and methanolic extract (CRME) of C. reflexa in pigeons. Emesis was induced through GIT irritants like ampicillin (300 mg/kg, IM), copper sulphate (100 mg/kg, PO), conc. sodium chloride solution (1600 mg/kg, PO) and cisplatin (5-HT3 receptor stimulator) (6 mg/kg, IM). Dimenhydrinate acted as a positive control (2 mg/kg; IM). JCR [(1 ml/kg (1 %) and 1 ml/kg (2 %)], CRAE, and CRME were administered intramuscularly at different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) to each pigeon (n = 6). In each group, calculation of total number of jerks & vomiting episodes, and vomiting-weight was carried out to evaluate its antiemetic activity. The JCR exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) antiemetic impact on both the frequency and onset of emesis at 1 ml/kg (2 %) against various emesis mediator, except sodium chloride. Similarly, CRAE and CRME elicited marked dose dependent inhibition both on onset and frequency of emesis with highly significant (p < 0.001) effect at 200 mg/kg. The study reflects that juice, aqueous and methanolic extract of C. reflexa have significant antiemetic potential and possess pharmacological active constituent(s) that interfered with the emetic mediators by acting through GIT irritation and 5-HT3 receptor stimulations. Results of this study provide a scientific background to its traditional antiemetic uses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1305-1310
Number of pages6
JournalToxicology Reports
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge commendable facilitator Mr. Ikram Ul Haq (National institute of Health Islamabad) for his devotion, contributions and providing of cisplatin injections for the cause of this scientific research is highly appreciated. We also acknowledge Herbion Pakistan Pharmaceutical (PVT) limited for providing methanolic extract. We are also thankful to the higher Education commission of Pakistan under project number NRPU/7343 for providing chemicals to complete this work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s)


  • Ampicillin
  • Antiemetic
  • Cisplatin
  • Copper sulphate
  • Cuscuta reflexa
  • Dimenhydrinate


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