The role of postoperative radiotherapy delivered as external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) or a combination of both, in the management of carcinosarcoma of the uterus is not clearly defined, as only limited randomized trial data are available, indicating a reduction in locoregional recurrences after EBRT. We performed a structured review of data published from 2010. Although no relevant new data from prospective trials or meta-analyses were identified, 14 analyses of cancer registry data from the United States or Europe, focusing predominantly on the endpoint for overall survival, were identified, four of them using propensity-score matching to compare subgroups treated with vs. without radiotherapy. Although stage-by-stage data are rare, the registry analyses support the idea of a beneficial effect, especially of VBT, on overall survival in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IA patients (to a lesser extent in stage IB). For stages II to III, the data sets indicate the largest effects on overall survival for the combination of EBRT and VBT. In all stages, survival effects of radiotherapy apparently persist when given in addition to chemotherapy. Whereas some studies see the strongest survival effects in patients with positive lymph nodes, propensity-score matched data indicate an overall survival effect of radiotherapy (EBRT + VBT or VBT alone) in FIGO stages I to III regardless of lymph node surgery.
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