The shadow of the past: Convergence of young and old South American desert lizards as measured by head shape traits

César Aguilar-Puntriano, Luciano J. Avila, Ignacio De la Riva, Leigh Johnson, Mariana Morando, Jaime Troncoso-Palacios, Perry L. Wood, Jack W. Sites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Convergence is a pervasive phenomenon in the Tree of Life, and evolution of similar phenotypes sharing the same environmental conditions is expected in phylogenetically closely related species. In contrast, contingent factors are probably more influential in shaping phenotypic diversity for distantly related taxa. Here, we test putative convergent evolution of lizard head morphologies among relatively closely related desert dwelling Liolaemus species, and the very distantly related Ctenoblepharys adspersa. We estimated a multilocus time-calibrated phylogeny of 57 species of South American liolaemus lizards, based on seven molecular markers. We collected head shape data for 468 specimens, and used three phylogenetic comparative methods (SURFACE, CONVEVOL, and WHEATSHEAF index) to test for and estimate the strength of convergence. We found strong evidence for convergence among Pacific desert lizard C. adspersa, Liolaemus audivetulatus, Liolaemus insolitus, Liolaemus poconchilensis, Liolaemus stolzmanni, and a candidate species (Liolaemus “Moquegua”). Our results suggest that, despite the long divergence and phylogenetic distance of C. adspersa with respect to convergent Liolaemus species, natural selection was probably more important than historical contingency in shaping phenotypic evolution in these desert lizards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11399-11409
Number of pages11
JournalEcology and Evolution
Volume8
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
(award #1501187 to JWS, Jr. and CA), Peruvian Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo CientD?ficToe,cnolD?gicyode InnovaciD唀TnecnolD?gica (award # 116‐2017 to CA) and Argentinean financial support agen‐ cies FONCYT and CONICET‐PIP (MM and LJA). Permits (RD No 1280‐2012‐AG‐DGFFS‐DGEFFS, RD No 008‐2014‐MINAGRI‐ DGFFS‐DGEFFS) were issued by the Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, PerD? an, d Catamarca Province, Argentina. The work was approved by the BYU Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol number 12001 and in accordance with US law.

Funding Information:
We thank Herman N??ez (MNHN), A. Resetar (FMNH), J. Losos, J. Rosado (MCZ), F. Glaw (ZSM), L. Welton and R. Brown (KU) for loans and accessions of specimens under their care. Comments from Associate editor and two anonymous reviewers improved considerably our paper. Fieldwork was supported by the Waitt Foundation-National Geographic Society (award W195-11 to CA and JWS, Jr.), the BYU Bean Life Science Museum (JWS, Jr.), and laboratory work by NSF-Emerging Frontiers award (EF 1241885 to JWS, Jr.), Dr. C.G. Sites to JWS, Jr., NSF-Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant (award #1501187 to JWS, Jr. and CA), Peruvian Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cient?fico, Tecnol?gico y de Innovaci?n Tecnol?gica (award # 116-2017 to CA) and Argentinean financial support agencies FONCYT and CONICET-PIP (MM and LJA). Permits (RD No 1280-2012-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS, RD No 008-2014-MINAGRI-DGFFS-DGEFFS) were issued by the Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, Per?, and Catamarca Province, Argentina. The work was approved by the BYU Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol number 12001 and in accordance with US law.

Funding Information:
We thank Herman ND?D?(MeNzHN), A. Resetar (FMNH), J. Losos, J. Rosado (MCZ), F. Glaw (ZSM), L. Welton and R. Brown (KU) for loans and accessions of specimens under their care. Comments from Associate editor and two anonymous reviewers improved consider‐ ably our paper. Fieldwork was supported by the Waitt Foundation‐ National Geographic Society (award W195‐11 to CA and JWS, Jr.), the BYU Bean Life Science Museum (JWS, Jr.), and laboratory work by NSF‐Emerging Frontiers award (EF 1241885 to JWS, Jr.), Dr. C.G. Sites to JWS, Jr., NSF‐Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Copyright:
Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Ctenoblepharys adspersa
  • Liolaemus
  • South America
  • repeated evolution

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