Transmission of X and γ-rays to differentiate tumbaga from gold and gilded copper

Roberto Cesareo, Jan Iwanczyk, Angel Bustamante, Marcelino Dos Anjos, Joaquim T. de Assis, Soraia Azeredo, Ricardo T. Lopes

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4 Scopus citations


© 2020 Elsevier B.V. In many cases, the differentiation between an artefact on gold alloy, or on tumbaga (the last being a poor gold alloy subject to depletion gilding), and, sometimes, on gilded copper, is not easy. Their aspect is often similar, and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, which is one of the few non-destructive and non-invasive technique suited to analyze gold sheets, is sometimes not able to solve the question on the basis of altered Au-L, Cu-K, Cu-K/Au-L- ratios, as in other similar cases. For that reason, X-rays from a Sn secondary target, and 26.4 and 59.6 keV γ-rays emitted by an Am-241 radioactive source were employed in transmission mode as an additional differentiation method.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalMicrochemical Journal
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020


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