© 2020 Elsevier B.V. In many cases, the differentiation between an artefact on gold alloy, or on tumbaga (the last being a poor gold alloy subject to depletion gilding), and, sometimes, on gilded copper, is not easy. Their aspect is often similar, and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, which is one of the few non-destructive and non-invasive technique suited to analyze gold sheets, is sometimes not able to solve the question on the basis of altered Au-L, Cu-K, Cu-K/Au-L- ratios, as in other similar cases. For that reason, X-rays from a Sn secondary target, and 26.4 and 59.6 keV γ-rays emitted by an Am-241 radioactive source were employed in transmission mode as an additional differentiation method.
Cesareo, R., Iwanczyk, J., Bustamante, A., Anjos, M. D., de Assis, J. T., Azeredo, S., & Lopes, R. T. (2020). Transmission of X and γ-rays to differentiate tumbaga from gold and gilded copper. Microchemical Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2020.104720