Trivalent lanthanides, also called rare-earth ions (REIs), show light emissions in almost all the near infrared and visible spectrum. Such luminescent properties are often related to potential applications in a variety of fields since sharp emission lines, meta-stable states, the ability of converting long/short-wavelengths (up/down-conversion process), energy transfer processes (resonant and non-resonant) and high quantum efficiency make them appropriate for the manufacture of many optical devices.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was financially supported by the Brazilian agencies FAPESP, CNPq and CEPOF/INOF. V.A.G. Rivera extends thanks FAPESP for financial support (project 2009/08978-4 and 2011/21293-0) that allowed my post-doctoral and my gratitude to Dr. Luiz Antonio Nunes of the Instituto de Física de São Carlos—University São Paulo—Brazil and the Dr. Yannick Ledemi and the Dr. Younnes Messaddeq of the Centre d’Optique, Photonique et laser—University Laval- Canada for the discussions on this issue.
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