Morphological evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer is gaining momentum as evidence strengthens the clinical relevance of this immunological biomarker. TILs in the post-neoadjuvant residual disease setting are acquiring increasing importance as a stratifying marker in clinical trials, considering the raising interest on immunotherapeutic strategies after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. TILs in ductal carcinoma in situ, with or without invasive carcinoma, represent an emerging area of clinical breast cancer research. The aim of this report is to update pathologists, clinicians and researchers on TIL assessment in both the post-neoadjuvant residual disease and the ductal carcinoma in situ settings. The International Immuno-Oncology Working Group proposes a method for assessing TILs in these settings, based on the previously published International Guidelines on TIL Assessment in Breast Cancer. In this regard, these recommendations represent a consensus guidance for pathologists, aimed to achieve the highest possible consistency among future studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
David Rimm has served as consultant or advisor for: Astra Zeneca, Agendia, Bethyl Labs, Biocept, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cell Signaling Technology, Merck, OptraScan, Perkin Elmer and Ultivue. David Rimm receives funding from Astra Zeneca, Cepheid, Navigate/Novartis, Gilead Sciences, Pierre Fabre, and Perkin Elmer for research in his laboratory.
Roberto Salgado was supported by a grant from the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF) . Federico Rojo was supported by CIBERONC CB/16/12/00481 and PI15/00934 .
© 2017 The Authors
- Breast cancer
- Ductal carcinoma in situ
- Residual cancer burden
- Residual disease
- Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes