Objective: To determine the difference in outcomes in patients who achieved or did not achieve the 2019 European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Methods: Patients from the LUpus in MInorities, NAture versus nurture (LUMINA) cohort were included. For these analyses, we compared those patients who achieved the 2019 EULAR/ACR criteria any time during follow-up to those who did not. The predefined outcomes were the last Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI) scores and survival. Univariable and multivariable negative binomial regression models were performed; adjustment models were based on a forward selection process. Results: In total, 98 of 640 patients never achieved the 2019 EULAR/ACR criteria. There was no difference in mean baseline SDI score among the patients who did not achieve the criteria compared to those who did. Conversely, the mean ± SD SDI score at last visit was lower for those who never achieved the criteria (1.2 ± 1.7 versus 2.0 ± 2.3, P = 0.0004). In the final adjusted model, the SDI score at last visit was 31% lower for those who never achieved the criteria (P = 0.0077). These patients were also more likely to survive, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In our cohort, patients who did not achieve the 2019 EULAR/ACR criteria accrued less damage, suggesting that these criteria could allow us to identify a subset of patients with more severe disease than allowed by previous criteria.
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