The genus Neacomys includes 10 recognized species of Neotropical spiny mice in the tribe Oryzomyini. Five species have previously been reported from Peru, but the small-bodied Peruvian taxa remain unrevised. In this report, we present the first systematic and taxonomic revision of small-bodied Neacomys populations in Peru and describe two new species based on molecular, morphological, and karyotype data: (1) Neacomys rosalindae, sp. nov., from northeastern Peru, is distinguished from congeneric species by, among other differences, short incisive foramina with a wide maxillary portion of the septum, a small subsquamosal fenestra, and a karyotype of 2n = 48, FN = 50. (2) Neacomys macedoruizi, sp. nov., from central Peru, is distinguished by its gray-based ventral fur, large infraorbital foramen, and karyotype of 2n = 28, FN = 36, with a distinctively large pair of metacentric chromosomes. The results of our molecular analyses suggest that N. minutus (as currently recognized) is a species complex comprised of N. minutus sensu stricto, N. macedoruizi, and a third form that remains to be described. The other species described here, N. rosalindae, is the sister taxon to a cluster that includes the N. minutus complex plus N. musseri. Our data suggest that the upper Amazon River constitutes an important dispersal barrier for species in this genus.
Nota bibliográficaPublisher Copyright:
© American Museum of Natural History 2018.