This article reports a benign environmentally friendly fabrication method of titanium dioxide (TDO) nanoparticles (named TDO NPs3, TDO NPs5, and TDO NPs8) using aqueous extract of durva herb waste. This synthesis process avoids use of harmful substances and persistent chemicals throughout the order and enables us to control the size of the nanomaterials. Characterization of TDO nanoparticles was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphological nature of the TDO samples was inspected by transmission electron microscopy, which indicated that the TDO NPs3, TDO NPs5, and TDO NPs8 were spherical in shape, with average sizes of 5.14, 12.54, and 29.61 nm, respectively. The stability of TDO nanoparticles was assessed using thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic light scattering analysis. These samples could be used for degradation of polluting industrial textile dyes, such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B). Remarkably, the TDO NPs3 sample (5.14 nm size) exhibits a noticeable degradation of the MB dye in a shorter time period (50 min) than the TDO NPs8 sample with a size of 29.61 nm (120 min). The TDO NPs3 sample was also tested for degradation of Rh-B dye, showing high degradation efficiency over a short period of time (60 min). In contrast, the TDO NPs8 sample showed degradation of the Rh-B dye in 120 min. The effect of the dye concentration and the catalyst dose to remove dye pollutants has also been investigated. The synthesized TDO NPs act as exceptional catalysts for the degradation of dyes, and they are promising materials for the degradation of industrial polluting dyes.
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