© 2020, Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature. Purpose: To compare the buccal alveolar bone thickness of mesioangulated mandibular impacted third molars (MITM) with buccal versus lingual inclination using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated 69 individuals (39 women and 30 men) who presented a total of 101 mesioangulated MITM according to the Winter classification and in B position according to the Pell and Gregory classification. The average age was 22.99 ± 3.94 years. The superior, medial and inferior alveolar thickness regarding buccal (n = 44) or lingual (n = 57) mandibular third molar inclination were measured. T test or Mann–Whitney U test and finally, a multiple linear regression were applied (p < 0.05). Results: The buccal alveolar bone thickness of mesioangulated mandibular impacted third molars was significantly greater in the group with lingual inclination compared to the group with buccal inclination, in the superior region (6.21 ± 3.27 vs. 4.85 ± 3.06; p = 0.036). The lingual inclination significantly influenced the buccal alveolar bone thickness in the middle region (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The mesioangulated MITM in B position with lingual inclination have a greater thickness of the superior and medial buccal alveolar bone than the MITM with buccal inclination. These results should be considered during MITM diagnosis and surgical planning.