Morphologically cryptic species act as a wild card when it comes to biodiversity assessments and conservation, with the capacity to dramatically alter our understanding of the biological landscape at the taxonomic, ecological, biogeographic, evolutionary, and conservation levels. We discuss the potential effects that cryptic species may have on biodiversity assessments and conservation, as well as some of the current issues involving the treatment of cryptic species both at taxonomic and conservation levels. In addition, using a combination of advertisement call and morphological data, we describe a new species of the Leptodactylus marmoratus group from the upper Amazon basin, and we assess how cryptic species can affect conservation assessments of species in the Leptodactylus marmoratus group by examining how recent findings affect our understanding of the distribution of what is assumed to be a widespread Amazonian species, Leptodactylus andreae.
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- Cryptic species complexes
- IUCN Red List
- Leptodactylus marmoratus group
- Widespread species