© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Lymphadenopathy is a commonly found condition in guinea pigs that suffer diseases caused by bacterial organisms as Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Bordetella, and Salmonellae (S. linate) which access cervical lymph nodes via an abraded oral mucosa. In this study, we investigate all possible alterations present in cytological smears obtained from cervical lymph nodes of guinea pigs with lymphadenopathy. Thirty-one clinical cases of guinea pigs with different grades of lymphadenomegaly and 10 clinically healthy guinea pigs were considered. The fine-needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) provided an adequate quantity and quality of samples for cytological analysis. Air-dried FNNAC smears yielded excellent results with Wright stain. From 31 evaluated clinical cases, 64.5% were compatible with pseudoeosinophilic lymphadenitis, 22.6% compatible with reactive lymphatic node, 6.45% compatible with lymphoma, and 6.45% with Hodgkin's-like lymphoma. The findings revealed the usefulness of the FNNAC technique and Romanowsky stains as fast and easy methods for lymph node sampling and analysis, and also, the importance of recognizing various causes of lymphadenopathies associated with morbidity and mortality in guinea pigs which would influence treatment protocols and prognosis for patients.