This study was performed to investigate the role of dysglycemia on the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients to build scientific evidence about the possible mechanisms of TB transmission. MTB isolates obtained of patients affected by pulmonary tuberculosis from health care facilities of North Lima—Peru, were analyzed using whole genome sequencing and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit -variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). Subsequently, clinical and epidemiological characteristics were associated with clustering, lineages and comorbid conditions. The analysis carried out 112 pulmonary TB patients from various health centers in North Lima, 17 (15%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33 (29%) had prediabetes (PDM). Latin American-Mediterranean, Haarlem and Beijing were the most frequent MTB lineages found in those patients. Previous TB (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.65; 95%CI: 1.32–17.81), age (aOR = 1.12; 95%CI: 1.03–1.45) and Beijing lineage (aOR = 3.53; 95%CI: 1.08–13.2) were associated with TB-DM comorbidity. Alcoholism (aOR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.10–8.28), age (aOR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03–1.12) and Haarlem lineage (aOR = 2.54; 95%CI: 1.04–6.51) were associated with TB-PDM comorbidity. Beijing and Haarlem lineages were independently associated with TB-DM and TB-PDM comorbidities, respectively. Although these findings may be surprising, we must be cautious to suggest that dysglycemia could be associated with a highly clustering and predisposition of MTB lineages related to a serious impact on the severity of TB disease, which requires further research.
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© 2021 Lopez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.