Background and Aim: Senecio rhizomatus Rusby (SrR) is a medicinal plant of the Asteraceae family and traditionally consumed as infusion in the Andean region from Peru for inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to determine the histopathological changes afforded by SrR in 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer (BC) in rats. Materials and Methods: An ethanolic extract of SrR aerial parts was prepared by maceration with 96% ethanol, and the chemical components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry; the antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picril-hidrazil (DPPH) assay; and the acute toxicity was assessed according to the OCED 423 guidelines. In a pharmacological study, 30 female Holztman rats were distributed randomly into five groups, as follows. Group I: Negative control (physiological serum, 2 mL/kg); Group II. DMBA (80 mg/Kg body weight); and Groups III, IV, and V: DMBA + ethanol extract of SrR at doses of 10, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The antioxidant activity of the SrR extract against DPPH was 92.50% at 200 g/mL. The oral administration of SrR at doses of 50, 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg did not show any clinical evidence of toxicity or occurrence of death. The groups that received SrR presented a lower frequency of tumors and a cumulative tumor volume compared with the DMBA group (p 0.05); the DMBA group exhibited a higher incidence of necrosis and moderate mitosis, up to 66.67% and 100.00%, respectively. Finally, infiltrating carcinoma with extensive tumor necrosis was evidenced. Conclusion: In experimental conditions, the ethanolic extract of SrR had a protective effect in DMBA-induced BC in female rats. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of its main phytochemicals could be responsible for the effect observed, and SrR seems to be a safe extract in the preclinical phase.
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