The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) are lymphomagenic viruses with region-specific induced morbidity. The RIAL-CYTED aims to increase the knowledge of lymphoma in Latin America (LA), and, as such, we systematically analyzed the literature to better understand our risk for virus-induced lymphoma. We observed that high endemicity regions for certain lymphomas, e.g., Mexico and Peru, have a high incidence of EBV-positive lymphomas of T/NK cell origin. Peru also carries the highest frequency of EBV-positive classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and EBV-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), than any other LA country. Adult T cell lymphoma is endemic to the North of Brazil and Chile. While only few cases of KSHV-positive lymphomas were found, in spite of the close correlation of Kaposi sarcoma and the prevalence of pathogenic types of KSHV. Both EBV-associated HL and Burkitt lymphoma mainly affect young children, unlike in developed countries, in which adolescents and young adults are the most affected, correlating with an early EBV seroconversion for LA population despite of lack of infectious mononucleosis symptoms. High endemicity of KSHV and HTLV infection was observed among Amerindian populations, with differences between Amazonian and Andean populations.
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