The use of accurate and reliable techniques for sex determination of wild birds is of special importance in captive breeding programs, especially in birds with monogamous, aggressive behavior, with absence of copulation, and with a low hatching rate. Using PCR, we evaluated the relative efficacy of primers HPF/HPR and CHD1Wr/NP/CHD1Zr in the amplification of the chromo-helicase-DNA binding 1 (CHD1) gene for sex determination in Penelope albipennis and 8 other species of cracids, 4 species of falconids, 4 species of accipitrids, and 3 species of psittacines. Primer effectiveness was compared using previously sexed bird samples. The HPF/HPR primer set was found to demonstrate a better performance and reliability. Therefore, these primers should be used to determine the sex of juvenile birds to avoid or minimize incompatibilities during the selection of potential breeding pairs.
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