Aims: To assess MRP1 protein and MRP1 mRNA levels in gastric carcinomas and in non-neoplastic mucosa remote from the tumours. MRP1 gene expression may play a role in the complex pattern of chemoresistance present in gastric carcinomas. Methods and results: A total of 57 carcinomas and respective gastric tissues were included for immunohistochemical assessment with the anti-MRP1 monoclonal antibodies MRPr1 and QCRL-1. Of these, 35 tumour and gastric mucosa tissues were also assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Medium or high MRP1 protein expression was detected in 89% and 77% of carcinomas and in 96% and 93% of non-neoplastic gastric mucosa by MRPr1and QCRL-1, respectively. No difference in MRP1 mRNA levels was detected between carcinomas and non-neoplastic gastric mucosa tissues in 77% of the patients. A significant correlation was found between MRP1 mRNA level and protein expression detected in carcinomas related to non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, although they were non-concordant in 29% of the patients. Conclusions: MRP1 gene is usually expressed in most gastric carcinomas and does not differ substantially from that observed in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa remote from the tumour. However, a decrease in MRP1 gene expression is found in some carcinomas. For accurate assessment of changes in MRP1 expression between tumour and normal tissues both protein and mRNA detection are necessary.