A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. Copyright © 2010 by AAN Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved.