With around 15% of all described freshwater fish species in the world, the Amazon Basin is by far the most fish species-rich freshwater ecosystem on the planet. In this opinion paper, a rough evaluation is given on just how vulnerable Amazonian freshwater fishes are to ongoing climate change. And to argue that current anthropogenic threats through rapid expansion of human infrastructure and economic activities in the basin could be a far greater threat to fish communities than those anticipated by any future climate change. Conservation actions in the Amazon Basin should focus preferentially on reducing the impacts of present-day anthropogenic threats.
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