Background: Luffa operculata is a vegetable species well known in the traditional peruvian medicine for its many medicinal properties and cosmetic applications. Objective: The aim objective was to determine the pharmacognostic characteristics of L. operculata as well as observing the pharmacological effect of the ethanol extract of L. operculata fruit on chronic inflammation in rats. Materials and Method: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by using specific chemical reagents for each constituent chemical, the pharmacobotanical study was done with a histological tinction (fruit, steam and leaves), which were stained with Safranin 1% and Toluidine blue 1%; the chronical inflammation was assessed by air bag method in Holztman male rats. Doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/Kg were tested in order to determine the anti-inflammatory effect, which was demonstrated with histopathological evaluation and lymphocytes reduction. Results: The main findings indicate that the ethanolic extract presented saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, terpenes and steroids. The efficiency of lymphocyte reduction per field in the histopathological study of the granuloma was 58.4% with the middle dose of 250 mg/kg (p < 0.0001), which gives a dose-independent anti-inflammatory effect in rats. Conclusion: Luffa operculata presented anti-inflammatory effect at 250 mg/Kg by oral administration in a chronical experimental model of inflammation in rats.
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