This study presents an analysis of sediments in an Andean river impacted by both natural conditions and anthropogenic activities. Fifty samples were collected from selected sites throughout the Moquegua River drainage basin, and Tambo River headwaters at Pasto Grande, in Peru, and analysed with X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Si, Ca, Al, Fe, and O, common constituents of soils, were dominant, along with K, N, and P. The latter originating as primary macronutrients or chemical residuals from fertilizers used in agriculture. Higher concentrations of macronutrients and organic components were found in agricultural and urban areas, respectively. Arsenic minerals were also detected, which occur naturally, but possibly at levels augmented by anthropogenic activity. The application of cluster analysis revealed clustering between arsenic, arsenolite, and potassium but no significant geospatial correlation between sample sites in the drainage basin.
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