Annona muricata leaves are traditionally used as an anticancer plant in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the essential oil from Annona muricata leaves (EOAm) in an experimental model of breast cancer and to determine the volatile constituents with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty female rats were assigned to five groups: the control group; the DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene) group; and three groups received daily EOAm doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, plus DMBA, respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, tumors were analyzed pathologically and biochemical markers in serum were noted. As a result, in GC-MS analysis, 40 compounds were identified and 4 of them were abundant: Z-caryophyllene (40.22%), followed by α-selinene (9.94%), β-pinene (8.92%), and β-elemene (7.48%). Furthermore, EOAm in a dose-dependent form produced a reduction in tumor frequency and the accumulated tumor volume was reduced by 50% and 71% with doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly compared to the DMBA group. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) decreased significantly from 70.75 ± 7.15 pg/mL in the DMBA group to 46.50 ± 9.00 and 34.13 ± 11.50 pg/mL in groups treated with doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. This study concludes that the EOAm leaves showed an ameliorative effect in a murine model of breast cancer.
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