Mine tailings are produced by mining activities and contain diverse heavy metal ions, which cause environmental problems and have negative impacts on ecosystems. Different microorganisms, including yeasts, play important roles in the absorption and/or adsorption of these heavy metal ions. This work aimed to analyze proteins synthesized by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica AMJ6 (Yl-AMJ6), isolated from Andean mine tailings in Peru and subjected to stress conditions with common heavy metal ions. Yeast strains were isolated from high Andean water samples impacted by mine tailings from Yanamate (Pasco, Peru). Among all the isolated yeasts, the Yl-AMJ6 strain presented LC50 values of 1.06 mM, 1.42 mM, and 0.49 mM for the Cr+6, Cu+2, and Cd+2 ions, respectively. Proteomic analysis of theYl-AMJ6 strain under heavy metal stress showed that several proteins were up- or downregulated. Biological and functional analysis of these proteins showed that they were involved in the metabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates; response to oxidative stress and protein folding; ATP synthesis and ion transport; membrane and cell wall; and cell division. The most prominent proteins that presented the greatest changes were related to the oxidative stress response and carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting the existence of a defense mechanism in these yeasts to resist the impact of environmental contamination by heavy metal ions.
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