We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of the poorly known South American butterfly genus Zischkaia Forster, 1964, hitherto regarded as including three described species. A phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequence data shows that Zischkaia is monophyletic and consists of two morphologically diagnosable clades. Morphological characters and DNA ‘barcodes’ support the recognition of twelve species in the genus, a significant increase even for the relatively poorly studied subtribe Euptychiina. Consequently, nine new species are described and named herein, including Z. arctoa Nakahara, sp. nov., Z. chullachaki Nakahara & Zacca, sp. nov., Z. baku Zacca, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov., Z. arenisca Nakahara, Willmott & Hall, sp. nov., Z. argyrosflecha Nakahara, L. Miller & Huertas, sp. nov., Z. abanico Nakahara & Petit, sp. nov., Z. josti Nakahara & Kleckner, sp. nov., Z. mielkeorum Dolibaina, Dias & Zacca, sp. nov. and Z. warreni Dias, Zacca & Dolibaina, sp. nov. In addition, a neotype is designated for Satyrus pacarus Godart, , and lectotypes are designated for Euptychia amalda Weymer, 1911, Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867 and Euptychia saundersii Butler, 1867.