Phylogenetic studies have shown that Schefflera, the largest genus of Araliaceae, is highly polyphyletic, comprising five non-sister clades within the family, and that the generic name must be restricted to a small group of Pacific Island species. In an effort to establish monophyletic genera for the other elements still remaining in Schefflera, phylogenetic analyses of the large Neotropical clade have revealed five morphologically and geographically coherent groups. Here, we reinstate the genus Sciodaphyllum, which corresponds to the largest of these five groups, presenting a synopsis of the 131 currently recognized species, including 109 new combinations, one replacement name (nomen novum), and three new heterotypic synonyms. The re-establishment of Sciodaphyllum opens the way for describing an estimated 200+ new species in the genus, nearly all of which are from the Northern and Central Andes.
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