During the last decades, there has been an increased interest in the discovery and validation of biomarkers that reliably reflect specific aspects of lupus. Although many biomarkers have been developed, few of them have been validated and used in clinical practice, but with unsatisfactory performances. Thus, there is still a need to rigorously validate many of these novel promising biomarkers in large-scale longitudinal studies and also identify better biomarkers not only for lupus diagnosis but also for monitoring and predicting upcoming flares and response to treatment. Besides serological biomarkers, urinary and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have emerged for assessing both renal and central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, respectively. Also, novel omics techniques help us to understand the molecular basis of the disease and also allow the identification of novel biomarkers which may be potentially useful for guiding new therapeutic targets.
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