Yanesha, also called Amuesha, is a group of amerindian people, belonging to the arawak linguistic family. They dwell in the central region of Peru, at the oriental foothills of the Andes. Their territory covers a large range of ecological settings, and communities spread from 1800 down to 400 m/snm. The Yanesha culture is vivid to this day, and people strongly rely on traditional medicine in their everyday life. An exhaustive ethnopharmacological survey leads us to collect 249 species with medicinal uses. An overview of the Yanesha pharmacopoeia, linked with ethnomedicinal practices is presented in this paper.