Both species are endemic to small tributaries of the Uruguay River. The two new species are distinguished from each other and from other species of Heptapterus by arrangement of cephalic and trunk laterosensory systems, number of vertebrae and number of dorsal, pectoral and anal-fin rays. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (coI and cytb) sequence data further supports distinctiveness of the two new species.
- Heptapterus mustelinus
- Uruguay River