The Lupus in Minorities: Nature Vs Nurture (LUMINA) cohort has placed Hispanics on the lupus map in the United States. Texan Hispanic and African American patients experience, overall, worse outcomes than the Caucasian and Puerto Rican Hispanic patients. The genetic component of ethnicity is important early in the disease course whereas socioeconomic factors become more important subsequently. The role of hydroxychloroquine in preventing damage accrual and reducing mortality in lupus patients is a major contribution of LUMINA.
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