Morphological evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer is gaining momentum as evidence strengthens the clinical relevance of this immunological biomarker. TILs in the post-neoadjuvant residual disease setting are acquiring increasing importance as a stratifying marker in clinical trials, considering the raising interest on immunotherapeutic strategies after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. TILs in ductal carcinoma in situ, with or without invasive carcinoma, represent an emerging area of clinical breast cancer research. The aim of this report is to update pathologists, clinicians and researchers on TIL assessment in both the post-neoadjuvant residual disease and the ductal carcinoma in situ settings. The International Immuno-Oncology Working Group proposes a method for assessing TILs in these settings, based on the previously published International Guidelines on TIL Assessment in Breast Cancer. In this regard, these recommendations represent a consensus guidance for pathologists, aimed to achieve the highest possible consistency among future studies.
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