The contamination of the surface water of lagoons is a common problem in developing countries, and can affect fishing activities. A case study was conducted on water quality and microbiological contamination of the fishing marketing chain in the Peruvian Amazon (Laguna de Yarinacocha). The microbiological, physical–chemical and parasitological parameters of the surface water were evaluated in three points of the lagoon near the landing stage; and microbiological parameters of facilities, handlers and three species of fish (Prochilodus nigricans, Mylossoma duriventre and Siluriforme spp.). In the water, there were coliform counts ≥ 23 (Most probable number—MPN)/100 mL, Escherichia coli ≥ 3.6 MPN/100 mL, and Pseudomona spp. up to 2.2 MPN/100 mL; high turbidity and variable amounts of parasites. In facilities and handlers, high levels of coliforms, mainly Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were found in M. duriventre meat. A poor quality of the surface water of the lagoon is concluded that compromises part of the fishing marketing chain, mainly facilities and manipulators. Furthermore, the levels of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in fish meat show poor handling practices and possible risk of contamination by water sources.
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